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Reserves and Sanctuaries
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Itaipu’s concern with the environment started with its draft. Several biodiversity protection measures were developed, aiming to ensure the perpetuation and genetic diversity of flora and fauna of the Paraná River Basin. 

Itaipu maintains eight biological reserves and sanctuaries located in Brazil and Paraguay. The protected area, which includes native forest and patches of reforestation, totals more than 40.000 hectares. In Brazil there are the Bela Vista Biological and St. Helena Sanctuarys, while Paraguay manages the Itabó and Limoy Biological Reserves, and the Biological Sanctuarys of Carapa, Tati Yupi Yui and Rupa, and together with the Binational Maracaju Biological Sanctuary. Taken together with the riparian forest of the reservoir (the protection strip), the Itaipu protected areas total over 100,000 hectares which sequesters more than 5 million thousand ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent.

Particularly noteworthy is the fact that in 2007, the Binational had participated in the global campaign of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to plant 1 billion trees worldwide. The campaign was so successful that it surpassed 7 billion. The company’s contribution to this success was of half a million seedlings.

In Brazil

Besides the protection of vast areas of forest species typical of the region, Itaipu produces seedlings that are provided for the entire Paraná River Basin Part 3 (the part of the basin which is conected with the reservoir). Since 2003, the company allocated more than 3 million seedlings for the region. 

Studies of the fauna are carried out on the Brazilian side, by the Breeding of Wild Animals of Itaipu Binational (Casib), located in the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, near the power plant dam, where more than 800 animals of 43 species have been born, with an offspring survival rate of more than 70%. In addition to Casib, the Roberto Ribas Lange Zoo plays an important role not only in the reproduction of species but also in the dissemination of knowledge, through guided tours and environmental education activities.

The reproductive work concentrates on endangered species in Brazil, and which are rare in the region, such as the gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus) Margay (Leopardus wiedii) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Another highlight is the first successful reproduction in captivity in the country of the harpy eagle (Harpya harpyja, the largest bird of prey in the world). This work is complemented by the maintenance of a gene bank cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen. 

Studies conducted since 1986 on the wildlife estimate that in the protected areas of the reservoir and sanctuaries located on the Brazilian side of the Itaipu Lake there are 44 species of mammals, 305 of birds and 37 of reptiles (on the Paraguayan side, where the native forest has not been as altered, 62 species of mammals and 409 of birds have been observed).

In nature, the researchers have found rare species today, such as the Margay (Leopardus wiedii) and dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana). One indicator of success of those actions is that many local residents reported the return of species that have long not been seen and are returning to circulate through  the reconnection of the remaining native forests, through the formation of riparian forests and biodiversity corridors. 

In Paraguay
The protected areas of Itaipu include the biological reserves and refuges of Limoy, Itabo, Carapa, Tati Yupi, Pikyry, Yvyty Rokai and Pozuelo, which, together with the Paraguay Biodiversity Project, protect the Atlantic Forest, creating a biodiversity corridor in the east of Paraguay.
Regarding the biodiversity corridor, the World Bank included the following in its report: "In Paraguay, more than 300,000 hectares of protected land have been restored and more than 25,000 people have benefited from increasing local capacity to manage protected forests, restore land, increase the conservation of biodiversity and reduce water pollution by agrochemicals used by farmers ".
Itaipu Biosphere Reserve: On the other hand, during the 29th session of the International Council for the Coordination of Man and the Biosphere, of the MaB - Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB - ICC), held in Paris, France, the incorporation of ITAIPU Binacional into the Network was approved World of Biosphere Reserves, with the admission of the Atlantic Forest of Alto Paraná, as the new biosphere reserve of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). In this way, Itaipu becomes the first hydroelectric power plant to join the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
Proyect Itaipu Preserves: Its purpose is the floristic reconstitution and the preservation of the natural resources of the Protection Strip, in an area of 1,524 km.  
The Protection Strip is the area including the security strip and the preservation strip, between the 220m height and the surrounding polygon.
General Goal: Create favorable conditions for the development of wildlife, to rebuild their original condition of self-sustaining forest areas, to integrate them into the Regional Biodiversity Corridor.
Description of the work: Implementation of native forest and fruit trees; cultural care, follow up and monitoring operations; management of the regenerated areas (cleaning, inventory, enrichment and stocking actions), so that reforestation generates a habitat for the native flora and fauna, to promote biodiversity.
Area of action: The Protection Strip between Hernandarias and Salto del Guairá and the area of influence of the San Alberto, Mbaracayú, Santa Fe del Paraná, Minga Porã, Nueva Esperanza, Francisco Caballero Álvarez and La Paloma del Espíritu Santo districts.
Expected results: Restoration of 2,469 hectares of areas, through the recovery and enrichment of forested areas with natural regeneration; restoration of the connections between the forest remnants of the Alto Paraná Atlantic Forest and the creation of favorable conditions for the reproduction of wild fauna and flora, consolidating one of the largest biological corridors in the world; preservation of the water quality of the reservoir; positioning of Itaipu Binacional worldwide, as one of the first hydroelectric plants with 100% of its protection band restored.
Reinforced surface: In 2015, 2,434,111 seedlings of the 3,018,374 predicted in the project were planted, covering an area of 1,826 hectares. In 2016, the other spaces will be completed. The work includes planting, replenishment and follow-up until their total reconstitution, of which 2,060 hectares correspond to restoration and 409 hectares to manage areas under regeneration.

Read more: Paraguay Biodiversity

"Taken together with the riparian forest of the reservoir, the Itaipu protected areas total over 100,000 hectares."
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