Paraná River Basin
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The Paraná River Basin, which supplies the Itaipu Binacional reservoir, encompasses six Brazilian States and the Federal District. Up to the confluence with the Iguaçu River, its area of 820,000 km² includes the most industrialized and urbanized region of Brazil.

It concentrates one third of the Brazilian population in urban centers like São Paulo, the largest city in Latin America. It is the drainage basin with the largest installed electricity generation capacity in the country, and also the one meeting the highest demand.

There are 57 large reservoirs in the basin. The power plants of greatest installed capacity are Itaipu, Furnas and Porto Primavera.
Its main tributaries are the rivers Grande, Paranaíba, Tietê, Paranapanema and Iguaçu. The growth of large urban centers, like São Paulo, Curitiba and Campinas, applies great pressure on the hydraulic resources.

There is a large consumption of potable water, and also of water for industrial and irrigation use. At the same time, organic and inorganic pollution (industrial effluents and agro-toxins) and the elimination of riverside woods contribute to the degradation of the water quality in great extensions of the main tributaries on the upper stretch of the Paraná River.

Originally, the Paraná Hydrographic Region presented the biomes of the Atlantic Forest and Scrublands (Cerrado) and five types of vegetal cover: Cerrado, the Araucaria Pine Forests, the Deciduous Seasonal Forest, and the Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest. The use of the soil in the region underwent great changes throughout the country's economic cycles, all of which caused much deforestation.

With regard to basic sanitation indicators, the indexes of the population served by running water varied from 78.6% (in Paranaíba) to 95% (Tietê). The majority of the basins surpass the Brazilian mean percentage which is 81.5%.

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