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Integration with the Brazilian system
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The flow of energy from Itaipu to the Brazilian Interconnected system, starting from the Foz do Iguaçu in Paraná, is made by Furnas and Copel. The O escoamento da energia de Itaipu para o sistema interligado brasileiro, a partir da subestação de Foz do Iguaçu no Paraná, é realizado por Furnas e Copel.

The energy provided in 50Hz uses direct current system of Furnas (DC Link) and the energy in 60Hz uses the 765kV system of Furnas and the 525kV system of Copel. And ONS (National System Operator, in Portuguese) is responsible for the coordination and control of transmission operation.

Direct Current System - Furnas

The Direct Current Link was become necessary because the energy produced in the 50Hz sector of Itaipu cannot integrate directly to the Brazilian system, where the frequency is of 60Hz. The energy produced in alternating current of 50Hz is converted to direct current and transmitted to Ibiúna (SP), where is converted to alternated current, but in 60Hz.

The transmission system is made of two lines of ±600 kV, with approximately 810 km, between the substations of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná and Ibiúna, São Paulo. The conversion AC/DC is made by eight converters in each substation, with each pair forming a pole, composing the bipoles in ±600 kV, and being transmitter in four lines, one in each pole. This system started operating in 1984.

Alternating Current System - Furnas

This system takes produced energy by the 60Hz sector of Itaipu (Brazilian frequency) near the consumption center of the Southeast Brazil, and even though it is called 750kV, its tension is actually 765kV. The system is composed of three transmission lines between Foz do Iguaçu and Tijuco Preto, São Paulo, substations, each with 900 km of length.

In Tijuco Preto there are seven converters, to 500 kV and 345 kV, to diversify its distribution. Throughout the system exist other two substations, Ivaiporã, Paraná, and Itaberá, São Paulo. There is a connection in Ivaiporã to the South of Brazil, with 500 kV converters, permitting the optimization of energy generation according to energy availability. The flow of energy on these converters go either to the South of Southeast. It started operating in 1986, and it is, until today, the transmission system with the highest tension of Brazil.

Each line is composed of two thousand transmission towers. Direct current lines have a greater loss of energy compared to alternating current in long lines.
Alternating Current System - Copel

In 2011 and 2012, many reinforcements were incorporated in the transmission system of the South-Southeast connection, which affects the operation of Itaipu 60Hz power plant and the transmission by 765 kV. The main reinforcement was the beginning of operation of the 525 kV transmission line between the substations of  Foz do Iguaçu and Cascavel Oeste (LT FI-CVO). The LT FI-CVO amplified the link between Itaipu 60Hz power plant and the South system, allowing the raise of energy intake by the South region and the full operation of the energy generation at Itaipu 60Hz power plant.

The commercialization of the energy generated at Itaipu is made by Eletrobrás.

 

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